C Input/Output: printf() and scanf() - Programiz

Seekers Beyond the Shroud -- Review and Thoughts

Seekers Beyond the Shroud is a Solo modern day occult RPG, written by Alex T. for Blackoath Entertainment. I first stumbled upon it on Kickstarter in October of 2019, and immediately backed it. There are few deliberately designed Solo RPG's, and its promise of solo rules, robust system, and setting was irresistible. I received my print copy this summer, but haven't had a chance until recently to play it. Now that I have, I wanted to do a quick review of the game, based on both my reading of it as well as the couple of sessions I've been able to play. While most of the review will be discussing the book itself, I'll include some notes on my play experience in spoilers.
Layout and Design
The book itself is solid. The cover image is cool and evocative--and the art in general is very well done. I only backed at the softcover level, but it's a solid and well designed layout. Actually, better than some of the recent games I've bought from more established companies.
Setting
It's modern day London. Your character has gone through some traumatic and horrifying experience that awakened them to the greater supernatural world. After much searching, you have come to the Omphalos, a secret town populated by mystics, monsters, and other...things. There, you begin your journey of both personal enlightenment and personal power.
Character Creation
Seekers uses the 6 classic attributes--Strength, Dexterity, Constitution, Intelligence, and Charisma, with Will replacing Wisdom. The scale is from 1-20, with all starting at 10. You then get an additional 20 points to further customize your character.
I ended up putting my points into Dexterity, Will, Intelligence, and Charisma. I figured Will and Intelligence are key to any aspiring wizard, and--desiring to do something different than a rogue bad ass--I was hoping that Dexterity and Charisma would give me options to solve issues with something other than direct violence. This would become an issue later on.
Next, you have "Secondary Attributes"--Hit Points (Con x10) or Sanity (Int x10) and the like. Then, you have Skills. They're pretty much what you would expect, a mix of combat and non-combat. You have 250 points to spend on the skills, but are limited to no more than 50 in any skill at creation. Some skills have a base value derived from your attributes (for example, One-Handed Melee starts with a value equal to your Str+Dex, while Persuade starts with a value equal to your Charisma X2), while other skills--the mystical ones--begin at 0 and can only be increased through gameplay. If you use a skill 5 times, you can make a Skill-Up roll. If you roll above the current value (i.e.: fail), you add 1 point to the skill.
Given that I had a decent Dex, my combat skills were decent to begin with. I wanted to play an "ordinary joe" kind of character, so I spend my points on skills like Technology, Linguistics, and Persuade. I finally caved to my min/maxing tendencies though, and ended up boosting Parry and Sneak as high as I could, with a smattering of points in other combat skills. I had quite a few in the mid-40's, so my "mild mannered accountant" was surprisingly dangerous. Or so I thought.
Backgrounds
After the basics are done, you roll a d10 for your Background. Each provides and in-depth backstory for your character, and details the traumatic and often horrific moment that set you on the path of magic. Each also provides various penalties and bonuses that further modify your character.
I rolled the "Near Death Experience"--my PC was a workaholic who almost dies of a heart attack. While "dead," he encounter a horrific spirit that he just barely managed to evade. Upon waking, he through aside his career and sought out some explanation for what he had seen. He has a bonus to Psychic Combat--which is used in the Astral Plane--but a penalty to his Constitution and Charisma. I had left my Con at 10, so it dropped to 9, and my Hit Points also dropped from 100 to 90. I wasn't worried though, as I had intended to be more sneaky and charming than tough.
He said foreshadowingly.
Combat
Combat is relatively simple. As you approach a foe, you make an Initiative roll on a d20. Each foe has a static Initiative value; if you beat it, you go first and if not, then they do. If you beat them on the first turn, you have a chance to surprise or avoid them entirely. All combat rolls are done by the player. If an enemy attacks, you need to make a defensive roll (Parry, Dodge, or Find Cover) to avoid their attack, and you make your offensive roll (like One Handed Melee) to hit them. Certain foes are Veterans, and apply penalties to these rolls. Different types of weapons do different amounts of damage--like 2d10+10 for a pistol. In the intro adventure, the PC gains a "talent" that grants them a flat +25 to their damage from then on. Most foes have roughly 100-130 Hit Points, so even with the player bonus, it can take quite a few rounds to get through even minor enemies.
The Mystical World
The next few sections are some of the most interesting, describing the Astral World, Magic, Summoning and Binding Spirits, and the like. I haven't had a chance to really dig into this aspect of the game, however.
The Omphalos and Scenarios
The core of the game is the Omphalos, a hub of trade, commerce, knowledge and intrigue. Here the PC can buy and sell gear, learn new knowledge, encounter the strange denizens of this world, and get missions for various factions. There are four listed in the book, each with their own agendas and philosophy. Each has constant need for "foot soldiers" to do various unsavory tasks for them, and as you gain Favor with each, they provide various bonuses and spells and other benefits.
>! So, I finished the intro scenario, had some knowledge of the greater world, and had been introduced to the Omphalos. Time for the first "real" adventure! First, I roll on the Emphalos Daily Event table and got "quiet day"--things are calm today, and prices are low. I have only a few obols (the currency of the magical realm), so any discount is nice. Then I roll for Encounters, and get "pickpocket." There's no roll to avoid this, so my PC loses 100 obols. This is more than I have, so I am no broke. Desperate for work, I see who is hiring. There are 4 factions, and each might have a represented in town that day, based on a roll of 7+ on a D10. I roll for each, and only one is present, the Causa Scientiae a particularly rational and Order focused faction. I then roll for the Scenario--I get "recover." One of their artifacts has fallen into mortal hands and is in a museum. They want me to recover it for them. Given the setup, there will only be mortal guards--which is nice--and they don't want me to kill anyone. In fact, each guard I kill will cost me the possible Favor reward with the faction. Works for me--I don't want to kill anyone either.!<
I could refuse job, but risk losing Favor with them. Given that they are the only ones hiring today, I'm loathe to refuse. Plus the job seems up my alley--no magics needed (and I have none), and I should avoid all combat. Since other types of mission are "kill everything on site" or "kill everything and cast a really tough ritual" I figure I'm unlikely to get a better mission.
Next I go to the scenario design. There are a number of possible locations, and each has a unique setup, Events, and Discoveries. This is probably my favorite part of the game. I roll some dice, get a list of rooms and locations, and then create a simple map for my explorations. I know given the setup that the artifact in question will be discovered in the 16th room. But, a roleplayer is gonna roleplay, so I decide my PC will make a beeline for the Archives, assuming that the object surely must be there. And, if not, it will have the necessary paperwork showing where the object is.
Each room has unique odds for three different types of encounters--Enemies, Events, and Discoveries. I begin at the Entrance, and have no enemies but an Event reveals Drug Fueled Goons--apparently the guards here are all high as hell, and have a bonus of 20 to their Hit Points, but a -10 to combat. So, tougher to kill, but easier to hit and avoid.
The next room I enter is the Lobby, and there's a guard present. The guard rules state that they will attack on site. I could use an alternate rule that lets you talk past human-type foes but, well, I am breaking in and they are all drugged the hell up, so I stick with the basic rules. Still, I try to avoid them but fail in my starting initiative roll. The battle begins, and the dice are on my side. It's a running gun battle, but I'm able to kill the guard. When he's wounded, he calls for backup, and the dice gods are still smiling at me, and I make it through that battle without any injuries. I'm upset at my failure to avoid combat--and losing Favor with my client--but after some nasty battles in the intro adventure, I start to think I'm getting things sorted out.
I continue exploring and even manage to successfully sneak past a guard. As I'm exploring one of the administration offices, I run into another one. This time I can't avoid him, and another fight ensues. This time, the dice don't roll so well. He quickly gets the better of me, and I end up taking a lot damage. And with only 90 Hit Points, it's far more than I'm comfortable with. I decide to run.
To run away, you need to roll a D20 and, like initiative, and beat their Dexterity but even still they get a free attack on you. Not that it matters, as I fail to disengage. After two rounds spent trying to run away, my PC is shot dead on some secretaries desk and my game came to a close.
Concluding Thoughts
Seekers Beyond the Shroud is a very interesting game. Obviously, a ton of thought, love, and work has been poured into this game. And there is a lot I love about it--the world, the discussions on magic and spirits, the mission setup system--all top notch. But, there are some things that didn't quite work for me.
I'll probably give the game another shot. But, instead of playing an average guy awakening to a wider world, I'll probably go with a more "badass" character and hope he can survive the first few missions. In Seekers, knowing ancient languages is nice, but real mages know how to use a Glock.
TLDR
Seekers Beyond the Shroud is an interesting Solo RPG of modern occult shenanigans. it has a lot of very interesting and fun mechanics to bring the game to life, but suffers from some bad editing (make sure you play through the intro scenario or you WILL miss a key "PC Bonus") and an unforgiving system. Still, worth checking out for any Solo gamer interested in more contemporary game.
submitted by Talmor to Solo_Roleplaying [link] [comments]

[N] Tensorflow 2.3.0 Released!

There is also a new experimental tf.data API for saving and loading datasets(https://www.tensorflow.org/versions/r2.3/api_docs/python/tf/data/experimental/save)
https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/commit/4d58a67a9f19ab8d0cfbb2d8e461ebb73ce06db6
https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/issues/38483#issuecomment-640963109

https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/releases/tag/v2.3.0

Release 2.3.0

Major Features and Improvements


In addition checkout the detailed guide for analyzing input pipeline performance with TF Profiler.

Breaking Changes


Known Caveats


Bug Fixes and Other Changes

TF Core:


tf.data:


tf.distribute:


tf.keras:


tf.lite:


Packaging Support


Profiler


TPU Enhancements


Tracing and Debugging


XLA Support


submitted by IIIBlueberry to MachineLearning [link] [comments]

AJ ALMENDINGER

glimpse into the future of Roblox

Our vision to bring the world together through play has never been more relevant than it is now. As our founder and CEO, David Baszucki (a.k.a. Builderman), mentioned in his keynote, more and more people are using Roblox to stay connected with their friends and loved ones. He hinted at a future where, with our automatic machine translation technology, Roblox will one day act as a universal translator, enabling people from different cultures and backgrounds to connect and learn from each other.
During his keynote, Builderman also elaborated upon our vision to build the Metaverse; the future of avatar creation on the platform (infinitely customizable avatars that allow any body, any clothing, and any animation to come together seamlessly); more personalized game discovery; and simulating large social gatherings (like concerts, graduations, conferences, etc.) with tens of thousands of participants all in one server. We’re still very early on in this journey, but if these past five months have shown us anything, it’s clear that there is a growing need for human co-experience platforms like Roblox that allow people to play, create, learn, work, and share experiences together in a safe, civil 3D immersive space.
Up next, our VP of Developer Relations, Matt Curtis (a.k.a. m4rrh3w), shared an update on all the things we’re doing to continue empowering developers to create innovative and exciting content through collaboration, support, and expertise. He also highlighted some of the impressive milestones our creator community has achieved since last year’s RDC. Here are a few key takeaways:
And lastly, our VP of Engineering, Technology, Adam Miller (a.k.a. rbadam), unveiled a myriad of cool and upcoming features developers will someday be able to sink their teeth into. We saw a glimpse of procedural skies, skinned meshes, more high-quality materials, new terrain types, more fonts in Studio, a new asset type for in-game videos, haptic feedback on mobile, real-time CSG operations, and many more awesome tools that will unlock the potential for even bigger, more immersive experiences on Roblox.

Vibin’

Despite the virtual setting, RDC just wouldn’t have been the same without any fun party activities and networking opportunities. So, we invited special guests DJ Hyper Potions and cyber mentalist Colin Cloud for some truly awesome, truly mind-bending entertainment. Yoga instructor Erin Gilmore also swung by to inspire attendees to get out of their chair and get their body moving. And of course, we even had virtual rooms dedicated to karaoke and head-to-head social games, like trivia and Pictionary.
Over on the networking side, Team Adopt Me, Red Manta, StyLiS Studios, and Summit Studios hosted a virtual booth for attendees to ask questions, submit resumes, and more. We also had a networking session where three participants would be randomly grouped together to get to know each other.

What does Roblox mean to you?

We all know how talented the Roblox community is from your creations. We’ve heard plenty of stories over the years about how Roblox has touched your lives, how you’ve made friendships, learned new skills, or simply found a place where you can be yourself. We wanted to hear more. So, we asked attendees: What does Roblox mean to you? How has Roblox connected you? How has Roblox changed your life? Then, over the course of RDC, we incorporated your responses into this awesome mural.
📷
Created by Alece Birnbach at Graphic Recording Studio

Knowledge is power

This year’s breakout sessions included presentations from Roblox developers and staff members on the latest game development strategies, a deep dive into the Roblox engine, learning how to animate with Blender, tools for working together in teams, building performant game worlds, and the new Creator Dashboard. Dr. Michael Rich, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School and Physician at Boston Children’s Hospital, also led attendees through a discussion on mental health and how to best take care of you and your friends’ emotional well-being, especially now during these challenging times.
📷
Making the Dream Work with Teamwork (presented by Roblox developer Myzta)
In addition to our traditional Q&A panel with top product and engineering leaders at Roblox, we also held a special session with Builderman himself to answer the community’s biggest questions.
📷
Roblox Product and Engineering Q&A Panel

2020 Game Jam

The Game Jam is always one of our favorite events of RDC. It’s a chance for folks to come together, flex their development skills, and come up with wildly inventive game ideas that really push the boundaries of what’s possible on Roblox. We had over 60 submissions this year—a new RDC record.
Once again, teams of up to six people from around the world had less than 24 hours to conceptualize, design, and publish a game based on the theme “2020 Vision,” all while working remotely no less! To achieve such a feat is nothing short of awe-inspiring, but as always, our dev community was more than up for the challenge. I’ve got to say, these were some of the finest creations we’ve seen.
WINNERS
Best in Show: Shapescape Created By: GhettoMilkMan, dayzeedog, maplestick, theloudscream, Brick_man, ilyannna You awaken in a strange laboratory, seemingly with no way out. Using a pair of special glasses, players must solve a series of anamorphic puzzles and optical illusions to make their escape.
Excellence in Visual Art: agn●sia Created By: boatbomber, thisfall, Elttob An obby experience unlike any other, this game is all about seeing the world through a different lens. Reveal platforms by switching between different colored lenses and make your way to the end.
Most Creative Gameplay: Visions of a perspective reality Created By: Noble_Draconian and Spathi Sometimes all it takes is a change in perspective to solve challenges. By switching between 2D and 3D perspectives, players can maneuver around obstacles or find new ways to reach the end of each level.
Outstanding Use of Tech: The Eyes of Providence Created By: Quenty, Arch_Mage, AlgyLacey, xJennyBeanx, Zomebody, Crykee This action/strategy game comes with a unique VR twist. While teams fight to construct the superior monument, two VR players can support their minions by collecting resources and manipulating the map.
Best Use of Theme: Sticker Situation Created By: dragonfrosting and Yozoh Set in a mysterious art gallery, players must solve puzzles by manipulating the environment using a magic camera and stickers. Snap a photograph, place down a sticker, and see how it changes the world.
OTHER TOP PICKS
HONORABLE MENTIONS
For the rest of the 2020 Game Jam submissions, check out the list below:
20-20 Vision | 20/20 Vision | 2020 Vision, A Crazy Perspective | 2020 Vision: Nyon | A Wild Trip! | Acuity | Best Year Ever | Better Half | Bloxlabs | Climb Stairs to 2021 | Double Vision (Team hey apple) | Eyebrawl | Eyeworm Exam | FIRE 2020 | HACKED | Hyperspective | Lucid Scream | Mystery Mansion | New Years at the Museum | New Year’s Bash | Poor Vision | Predict 2020 | RBC News | Retrovertigo | Second Wave | see no evil | Sight Fight | Sight Stealers | Spectacles Struggle | Specter Spectrum | Survive 2020 | The Lost Chicken Leg | The Outbreak | The Spyglass | Time Heist | Tunnel Vision | Virtual RDC – The Story | Vision (Team Freepunk) | Vision (Team VIP People ####) | Vision Developers Conference 2020 | Vision Is Key | Vision Perspective | Vision Racer | Visions | Zepto
And last but not least, we wanted to give a special shout out to Starboard Studios. Though they didn’t quite make it on time for our judges, we just had to include Dave’s Vision for good measure. 📷
Thanks to everyone who participated in the Game Jam, and congrats to all those who took home the dub in each of our categories this year. As the winners of Best in Show, the developers of Shapescape will have their names forever engraved on the RDC Game Jam trophy back at Roblox HQ. Great work!

‘Til next year

And that about wraps up our coverage of the first-ever digital RDC. Thanks to all who attended! Before we go, we wanted to share a special “behind the scenes” video from the 2020 RDC photoshoot.
Check it out:
It was absolutely bonkers. Getting 350 of us all in one server was so much fun and really brought back the feeling of being together with everyone again. That being said, we can’t wait to see you all—for real this time—at RDC next year. It’s going to be well worth the wait. ‘Til we meet again, my friends.
© 2020 Roblox Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Improving Simulation and Performance with an Advanced Physics Solver

August

05, 2020

by chefdeletat
PRODUCT & TECH
📷In mid-2015, Roblox unveiled a major upgrade to its physics engine: the Projected Gauss-Seidel (PGS) physics solver. For the first year, the new solver was optional and provided improved fidelity and greater performance compared to the previously used spring solver.
In 2016, we added support for a diverse set of new physics constraints, incentivizing developers to migrate to the new solver and extending the creative capabilities of the physics engine. Any new places used the PGS solver by default, with the option of reverting back to the classic solver.
We ironed out some stability issues associated with high mass differences and complex mechanisms by the introduction of the hybrid LDL-PGS solver in mid-2018. This made the old solver obsolete, and it was completely disabled in 2019, automatically migrating all places to the PGS.
In 2019, the performance was further improved using multi-threading that splits the simulation into jobs consisting of connected islands of simulating parts. We still had performance issues related to the LDL that we finally resolved in early 2020.
The physics engine is still being improved and optimized for performance, and we plan on adding new features for the foreseeable future.

Implementing the Laws of Physics

📷
The main objective of a physics engine is to simulate the motion of bodies in a virtual environment. In our physics engine, we care about bodies that are rigid, that collide and have constraints with each other.
A physics engine is organized into two phases: collision detection and solving. Collision detection finds intersections between geometries associated with the rigid bodies, generating appropriate collision information such as collision points, normals and penetration depths. Then a solver updates the motion of rigid bodies under the influence of the collisions that were detected and constraints that were provided by the user.
📷
The motion is the result of the solver interpreting the laws of physics, such as conservation of energy and momentum. But doing this 100% accurately is prohibitively expensive, and the trick to simulating it in real-time is to approximate to increase performance, as long as the result is physically realistic. As long as the basic laws of motion are maintained within a reasonable tolerance, this tradeoff is completely acceptable for a computer game simulation.

Taking Small Steps

The main idea of the physics engine is to discretize the motion using time-stepping. The equations of motion of constrained and unconstrained rigid bodies are very difficult to integrate directly and accurately. The discretization subdivides the motion into small time increments, where the equations are simplified and linearized making it possible to solve them approximately. This means that during each time step the motion of the relevant parts of rigid bodies that are involved in a constraint is linearly approximated.
📷📷
Although a linearized problem is easier to solve, it produces drift in a simulation containing non-linear behaviors, like rotational motion. Later we’ll see mitigation methods that help reduce the drift and make the simulation more plausible.

Solving

📷
Having linearized the equations of motion for a time step, we end up needing to solve a linear system or linear complementarity problem (LCP). These systems can be arbitrarily large and can still be quite expensive to solve exactly. Again the trick is to find an approximate solution using a faster method. A modern method to approximately solve an LCP with good convergence properties is the Projected Gauss-Seidel (PGS). It is an iterative method, meaning that with each iteration the approximate solution is brought closer to the true solution, and its final accuracy depends on the number of iterations.
📷
This animation shows how a PGS solver changes the positions of the bodies at each step of the iteration process, the objective being to find the positions that respect the ball and socket constraints while preserving the center of mass at each step (this is a type of positional solver used by the IK dragger). Although this example has a simple analytical solution, it’s a good demonstration of the idea behind the PGS. At each step, the solver fixes one of the constraints and lets the other be violated. After a few iterations, the bodies are very close to their correct positions. A characteristic of this method is how some rigid bodies seem to vibrate around their final position, especially when coupling interactions with heavier bodies. If we don’t do enough iterations, the yellow part might be left in a visibly invalid state where one of its two constraints is dramatically violated. This is called the high mass ratio problem, and it has been the bane of physics engines as it causes instabilities and explosions. If we do too many iterations, the solver becomes too slow, if we don’t it becomes unstable. Balancing the two sides has been a painful and long process.

Mitigation Strategies

📷A solver has two major sources of inaccuracies: time-stepping and iterative solving (there is also floating point drift but it’s minor compared to the first two). These inaccuracies introduce errors in the simulation causing it to drift from the correct path. Some of this drift is tolerable like slightly different velocities or energy loss, but some are not like instabilities, large energy gains or dislocated constraints.
Therefore a lot of the complexity in the solver comes from the implementation of methods to minimize the impact of computational inaccuracies. Our final implementation uses some traditional and some novel mitigation strategies:
  1. Warm starting: starting with the solution from a previous time-step to increase the convergence rate of the iterative solver
  2. Post-stabilization: reprojecting the system back to the constraint manifold to prevent constraint drift
  3. Regularization: adding compliance to the constraints ensuring a solution exists and is unique
  4. Pre-conditioning: using an exact solution to a linear subsystem, improving the stability of complex mechanisms
Strategies 1, 2 and 3 are pretty traditional, but 3 has been improved and perfected by us. Also, although 4 is not unheard of, we haven’t seen any practical implementation of it. We use an original factorization method for large sparse constraint matrices and a new efficient way of combining it with the PGS. The resulting implementation is only slightly slower compared to pure PGS but ensures that the linear system coming from equality constraints is solved exactly. Consequently, the equality constraints suffer only from drift coming from the time discretization. Details on our methods are contained in my GDC 2020 presentation. Currently, we are investigating direct methods applied to inequality constraints and collisions.

Getting More Details

Traditionally there are two mathematical models for articulated mechanisms: there are reduced coordinate methods spearheaded by Featherstone, that parametrize the degrees of freedom at each joint, and there are full coordinate methods that use a Lagrangian formulation.
We use the second formulation as it is less restrictive and requires much simpler mathematics and implementation.
The Roblox engine uses analytical methods to compute the dynamic response of constraints, as opposed to penalty methods that were used before. Analytics methods were initially introduced in Baraff 1989, where they are used to treat both equality and non-equality constraints in a consistent manner. Baraff observed that the contact model can be formulated using quadratic programming, and he provided a heuristic solution method (which is not the method we use in our solver).
Instead of using force-based formulation, we use an impulse-based formulation in velocity space, originally introduced by Mirtich-Canny 1995 and further improved by Stewart-Trinkle 1996, which unifies the treatment of different contact types and guarantees the existence of a solution for contacts with friction. At each timestep, the constraints and collisions are maintained by applying instantaneous changes in velocities due to constraint impulses. An excellent explanation of why impulse-based simulation is superior is contained in the GDC presentation of Catto 2014.
The frictionless contacts are modeled using a linear complementarity problem (LCP) as described in Baraff 1994. Friction is added as a non-linear projection onto the friction cone, interleaved with the iterations of the Projected Gauss-Seidel.
The numerical drift that introduces positional errors in the constraints is resolved using a post-stabilization technique using pseudo-velocities introduced by Cline-Pai 2003. It involves solving a second LCP in the position space, which projects the system back to the constraint manifold.
The LCPs are solved using a PGS / Impulse Solver popularized by Catto 2005 (also see Catto 2009). This method is iterative and considers each individual constraints in sequence and resolves it independently. Over many iterations, and in ideal conditions, the system converges to a global solution.
Additionally, high mass ratio issues in equality constraints are ironed out by preconditioning the PGS using the sparse LDL decomposition of the constraint matrix of equality constraints. Dense submatrices of the constraint matrix are sparsified using a method we call Body Splitting. This is similar to the LDL decomposition used in Baraff 1996, but allows more general mechanical systems, and solves the system in constraint space. For more information, you can see my GDC 2020 presentation.
The architecture of our solver follows the idea of Guendelman-Bridson-Fedkiw, where the velocity and position stepping are separated by the constraint resolution. Our time sequencing is:
  1. Advance velocities
  2. Constraint resolution in velocity space and position space
  3. Advance positions
This scheme has the advantage of integrating only valid velocities, and limiting latency in external force application but allowing a small amount of perceived constraint violation due to numerical drift.
An excellent reference for rigid body simulation is the book Erleben 2005 that was recently made freely available. You can find online lectures about physics-based animation, a blog by Nilson Souto on building a physics engine, a very good GDC presentation by Erin Catto on modern solver methods, and forums like the Bullet Physics Forum and GameDev which are excellent places to ask questions.

In Conclusion

The field of game physics simulation presents many interesting problems that are both exciting and challenging. There are opportunities to learn a substantial amount of cool mathematics and physics and to use modern optimizations techniques. It’s an area of game development that tightly marries mathematics, physics and software engineering.
Even if Roblox has a good rigid body physics engine, there are areas where it can be improved and optimized. Also, we are working on exciting new projects like fracturing, deformation, softbody, cloth, aerodynamics and water simulation.
Neither Roblox Corporation nor this blog endorses or supports any company or service. Also, no guarantees or promises are made regarding the accuracy, reliability or completeness of the information contained in this blog.
This blog post was originally published on the Roblox Tech Blog.
© 2020 Roblox Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Using Clang to Minimize Global Variable Use

July

23, 2020

by RandomTruffle
PRODUCT & TECH
Every non-trivial program has at least some amount of global state, but too much can be a bad thing. In C++ (which constitutes close to 100% of Roblox’s engine code) this global state is initialized before main() and destroyed after returning from main(), and this happens in a mostly non-deterministic order. In addition to leading to confusing startup and shutdown semantics that are difficult to reason about (or change), it can also lead to severe instability.
Roblox code also creates a lot of long-running detached threads (threads which are never joined and just run until they decide to stop, which might be never). These two things together have a very serious negative interaction on shutdown, because long-running threads continue accessing the global state that is being destroyed. This can lead to elevated crash rates, test suite flakiness, and just general instability.
The first step to digging yourself out of a mess like this is to understand the extent of the problem, so in this post I’m going to talk about one technique you can use to gain visibility into your global startup flow. I’m also going to discuss how we are using this to improve stability across the entire Roblox game engine platform by decreasing our use of global variables.

Introducing -finstrument-functions

Nothing excites me more than learning about a new obscure compiler option that I’ve never had a use for before, so I was pretty happy when a colleague pointed me to this option in the Clang Command Line Reference. I’d never used it before, but it sounded very cool. The idea being that if we could get the compiler to tell us every time it entered and exited a function, we could filter this information through a symbolizer of some kind and generate a report of functions that a) occur before main(), and b) are the very first function in the call-stack (indicating it’s a global).
Unfortunately, the documentation basically just tells you that the option exists with no mention of how to use it or if it even actually does what it sounds like it does. There’s also two different options that sound similar to each other (-finstrument-functions and -finstrument-functions-after-inlining), and I still wasn’t entirely sure what the difference was. So I decided to throw up a quick sample on godbolt to see what happened, which you can see here. Note there are two assembly outputs for the same source listing. One uses the first option and the other uses the second option, and we can compare the assembly output to understand the differences. We can gather a few takeaways from this sample:
  1. The compiler is injecting calls to __cyg_profile_func_enter and __cyg_profile_func_exit inside of every function, inline or not.
  2. The only difference between the two options occurs at the call-site of an inline function.
  3. With -finstrument-functions, the instrumentation for the inlined function is inserted at the call-site, whereas with -finstrument-functions-after-inlining we only have instrumentation for the outer function. This means that when using-finstrument-functions-after-inlining you won’t be able to determine which functions are inlined and where.
Of course, this sounds exactly like what the documentation said it did, but sometimes you just need to look under the hood to convince yourself.
To put all of this another way, if we want to know about calls to inline functions in this trace we need to use -finstrument-functions because otherwise their instrumentation is silently removed by the compiler. Sadly, I was never able to get -finstrument-functions to work on a real example. I would always end up with linker errors deep in the Standard C++ Library which I was unable to figure out. My best guess is that inlining is often a heuristic, and this can somehow lead to subtle ODR (one-definition rule) violations when the optimizer makes different inlining decisions from different translation units. Luckily global constructors (which is what we care about) cannot possibly be inlined anyway, so this wasn’t a problem.
I suppose I should also mention that I still got tons of linker errors with -finstrument-functions-after-inlining as well, but I did figure those out. As best as I can tell, this option seems to imply –whole-archive linker semantics. Discussion of –whole-archive is outside the scope of this blog post, but suffice it to say that I fixed it by using linker groups (e.g. -Wl,–start-group and -Wl,–end-group) on the compiler command line. I was a bit surprised that we didn’t get these same linker errors without this option and still don’t totally understand why. If you happen to know why this option would change linker semantics, please let me know in the comments!

Implementing the Callback Hooks

If you’re astute, you may be wondering what in the world __cyg_profile_func_enter and __cyg_profile_func_exit are and why the program is even successfully linking in the first without giving undefined symbol reference errors, since the compiler is apparently trying to call some function we’ve never defined. Luckily, there are some options that allow us to see inside the linker’s algorithm so we can find out where it’s getting this symbol from to begin with. Specifically, -y should tell us how the linker is resolving . We’ll try it with a dummy program first and a symbol that we’ve defined ourselves, then we’ll try it with __cyg_profile_func_enter .
[email protected]:~/src/sandbox$ cat instr.cpp int main() {} [email protected]:~/src/sandbox$ clang++-9 -fuse-ld=lld -Wl,-y -Wl,main instr.cpp /usbin/../lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/crt1.o: reference to main /tmp/instr-5b6c60.o: definition of main
No surprises here. The C Runtime Library references main(), and our object file defines it. Now let’s see what happens with __cyg_profile_func_enter and -finstrument-functions-after-inlining.
[email protected]:~/src/sandbox$ clang++-9 -fuse-ld=lld -finstrument-functions-after-inlining -Wl,-y -Wl,__cyg_profile_func_enter instr.cpp /tmp/instr-8157b3.o: reference to __cyg_profile_func_enter /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6: shared definition of __cyg_profile_func_enter
Now, we see that libc provides the definition, and our object file references it. Linking works a bit differently on Unix-y platforms than it does on Windows, but basically this means that if we define this function ourselves in our cpp file, the linker will just automatically prefer it over the shared library version. Working godbolt link without runtime output is here. So now you can kind of see where this is going, however there are still a couple of problems left to solve.
  1. We don’t want to do this for a full run of the program. We want to stop as soon as we reach main.
  2. We need a way to symbolize this trace.
The first problem is easy to solve. All we need to do is compare the address of the function being called to the address of main, and set a flag indicating we should stop tracing henceforth. (Note that taking the address of main is undefined behavior[1], but for our purposes it gets the job done, and we aren’t shipping this code, so ¯\_(ツ)_/¯). The second problem probably deserves a little more discussion though.

Symbolizing the Traces

In order to symbolize these traces, we need two things. First, we need to store the trace somewhere on persistent storage. We can’t expect to symbolize in real time with any kind of reasonable performance. You can write some C code to save the trace to some magic filename, or you can do what I did and just write it to stderr (this way you can pipe stderr to some file when you run it).
Second, and perhaps more importantly, for every address we need to write out the full path to the module the address belongs to. Your program loads many shared libraries, and in order to translate an address into a symbol, we have to know which shared library or executable the address actually belongs to. In addition, we have to be careful to write out the address of the symbol in the file on disk. When your program is running, the operating system could have loaded it anywhere in memory. And if we’re going to symbolize it after the fact we need to make sure we can still reference it after the information about where it was loaded in memory is lost. The linux function dladdr() gives us both pieces of information we need. A working godbolt sample with the exact implementation of our instrumentation hooks as they appear in our codebase can be found here.

Putting it All Together

Now that we have a file in this format saved on disk, all we need to do is symbolize the addresses. addr2line is one option, but I went with llvm-symbolizer as I find it more robust. I wrote a Python script to parse the file and symbolize each address, then print it in the same “visual” hierarchical format that the original output file is in. There are various options for filtering the resulting symbol list so that you can clean up the output to include only things that are interesting for your case. For example, I filtered out any globals that have boost:: in their name, because I can’t exactly go rewrite boost to not use global variables.
The script isn’t as simple as you would think, because simply crawling each line and symbolizing it would be unacceptably slow (when I tried this, it took over 2 hours before I finally killed the process). This is because the same address might appear thousands of times, and there’s no reason to run llvm-symbolizer against the same address multiple times. So there’s a lot of smarts in there to pre-process the address list and eliminate duplicates. I won’t discuss the implementation in more detail because it isn’t super interesting. But I’ll do even better and provide the source!
So after all of this, we can run any one of our internal targets to get the call tree, run it through the script, and then get output like this (actual output from a Roblox process, source file information removed):
excluded_symbols = [‘.\boost.*’]* excluded_modules = [‘/usr.\’]* /uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libLLVM-9.so.1: 140 unique addresses InterestingRobloxProcess: 38928 unique addresses /uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libstdc++.so.6: 1 unique addresses /uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc++.so.1: 3 unique addresses Printing call tree with depth 2 for 29276 global variables. __cxx_global_var_init.5 (InterestingFile1.cpp:418:22) RBX::InterestingRobloxClass2::InterestingRobloxClass2() (InterestingFile2.cpp.:415:0) __cxx_global_var_init.19 (InterestingFile2.cpp:183:34) (anonymous namespace)::InterestingRobloxClass2::InterestingRobloxClass2() (InterestingFile2.cpp:171:0) __cxx_global_var_init.274 (InterestingFile3.cpp:2364:33) RBX::InterestingRobloxClass3::InterestingRobloxClass3()
So there you have it: the first half of the battle is over. I can run this script on every platform, compare results to understand what order our globals are actually initialized in in practice, then slowly migrate this code out of global initializers and into main where it can be deterministic and explicit.

Future Work

It occurred to me sometime after implementing this that we could make a general purpose profiling hook that exposed some public symbols (dllexport’ed if you speak Windows), and allowed a plugin module to hook into this dynamically. This plugin module could filter addresses using whatever arbitrary logic that it was interested in. One interesting use case I came up for this is that it could look up the debug information, check if the current address maps to the constructor of a function local static, and write out the address if so. This effectively allows us to gain a deeper understanding of the order in which our lazy statics are initialized. The possibilities are endless here.

Further Reading

If you’re interested in this kind of thing, I’ve collected a couple of my favorite references for this kind of topic.
  1. Various: The C++ Language Standard
  2. Matt Godbolt: The Bits Between the Bits: How We Get to main()
  3. Ryan O’Neill: Learning Linux Binary Analysis
  4. Linkers and Loaders: John R. Levine
  5. https://eel.is/c++draft/basic.exec#basic.start.main-3
Neither Roblox Corporation nor this blog endorses or supports any company or service. Also, no guarantees or promises are made regarding the accuracy, reliability or completeness of the information contained in this blog.
submitted by jaydenweez to u/jaydenweez [link] [comments]

Step-by-Step Guide for Adding a Stack, Expanding Control Lines, and Building an Assembler

After the positive response to my first tutorial on expanding the RAM, I thought I'd continue the fun by expanding the capabilities of Ben's 8-bit CPU even further. That said, you'll need to have done the work in the previous post to be able to do this. You can get a sense for what we'll do in this Imgur gallery.
In this tutorial, we'll balance software and hardware improvements to make this a pretty capable machine:

Parts List

To only update the hardware, you'll need:
If you want to update the toolchain, you'll need:
  1. Arduino Mega 2560 (Amazon) to create the programmer.
  2. Ribbon Jumper Cables (Amazon) to connect the Arduino to the breadboard.
  3. TL866 II Plus EEPROM Programmer (Amazon) to program the ROM.
Bonus Clock Improvement: One additional thing I did is replace the 74LS04 inverter in Ben's clock circuit with a 74LS14 inverting Schmitt trigger (datasheet, Jameco). The pinouts are identical! Just drop it in, wire the existing lines, and then run the clock output through it twice (since it's inverting) to get a squeaky clean clock signal. Useful if you want to go even faster with the CPU.

Step 1: Program with an Arduino and Assembler (Image 1, Image 2)

There's a certain delight in the physical programming of a computer with switches. This is how Bill Gates and Paul Allen famously programmed the Altair 8800 and started Microsoft. But at some point, the hardware becomes limited by how effectively you can input the software. After upgrading the RAM, I quickly felt constrained by how long it took to program everything.
You can continue to program the computer physically if you want and even after upgrading that option is still available, so this step is optional. There's probably many ways to approach the programming, but this way felt simple and in the spirit of the build. We'll use an Arduino Mega 2560, like the one in Ben's 6502 build, to program the RAM. We'll start with a homemade assembler then switch to something more robust.
Preparing the Physical Interface
The first thing to do is prepare the CPU to be programmed by the Arduino. We already did the hard work on this in the RAM upgrade tutorial by using the bus to write to the RAM and disconnecting the control ROM while in program mode. Now we just need to route the appropriate lines to a convenient spot on the board to plug the Arduino into.
  1. This is optional, but I rewired all the DIP switches to have ground on one side, rather than alternating sides like Ben's build. This just makes it easier to route wires.
  2. Wire the 8 address lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) to a convenient point on the board. I put them on the far left, next to the address LEDs and above the write button circuit.
  3. Wire the 8 data lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) directly below the address lines. Make sure they're separated by the gutter so they're not connected.
  4. Wire a line from the write button to your input area. You want to connect the side of the button that's not connected to ground (the one going to the chip).
So now you have one convenient spot with 8 address lines, 8 data lines, and a write line. If you want to get fancy, you can wire them into some kind of connector, but I found that ribbon jumper cables work nicely and keep things tidy.
The way we'll program the RAM is to enter program mode and set all the DIP switches to the high position (e.g., 11111111). Since the switches are upside-down, this means they'll all be disconnected and not driving to ground. The address and write lines will simply be floating and the data lines will be weakly pulled up by 1k resistors. Either way, the Arduino can now drive the signals going into the chips using its outputs.
Creating the Arduino Programmer
Now that we can interface with an Arduino, we need to write some software. If you follow Ben's 6502 video, you'll have all the knowledge you need to get this working. If you want some hints and code, see below (source code):
  1. Create arrays for your data and address lines. For example: const char ADDRESS_LINES[] = {39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53};. Create your write line with #define RAM_WRITE 3.
  2. Create functions to enable and disable your address and data lines. You want to enable them before writing. Make sure to disable them afterward so that you can still manually program using DIP switches without disconnecting the Arduino. The code looks like this (just change INPUT to OUTPUT accordingly): for(int n = 0; n < 8; n += 1) { pinMode(ADDRESS_LINES[n], OUTPUT); }
  3. Create a function to write to an address. It'll look like void writeData(byte writeAddress, byte writeData) and basically use two loops, one for address and one for data, followed by toggling the write.
  4. Create a char array that contains your program and data. You can use #define to create opcodes like #define LDA 0x01.
  5. In your main function, loop through the program array and send it through writeData.
With this setup, you can now load multi-line programs in a fraction of a second! This can really come in handy with debugging by stress testing your CPU with software. Make sure to test your setup with existing programs you know run reliably. Now that you have your basic setup working, you can add 8 additional lines to read the bus and expand the program to let you read memory locations or even monitor the running of your CPU.
Making an Assembler
The above will serve us well but it's missing a key feature: labels. Labels are invaluable in assembly because they're so versatile. Jumps, subroutines, variables all use labels. The problem is that labels require parsing. Parsing is a fun project on the road to a compiler but not something I wanted to delve into right now--if you're interested, you can learn about Flex and Bison. Instead, I found a custom assembler that lets you define your CPU's instruction set and it'll do everything else for you. Let's get it setup:
  1. If you're on Windows, you can use the pre-built binaries. Otherwise, you'll need to install Rust and compile via cargo build.
  2. Create a file called 8bit.cpu and define your CPU instructions (source code). For example, LDA would be lda {address} -> 0x01 @ address[7:0]. What's cool is you can also now create the instruction's immediate variant instead of having to call it LDI: lda #{value} -> 0x05 @ value[7:0].
  3. You can now write assembly by adding #include "8bit.cpu" to the top of your code. There's a lot of neat features so make sure to read the documentation!
  4. Once you've written some assembly, you can generate the machine code using ./customasm yourprogram.s -f hexc -p. This prints out a char array just like our Arduino program used!
  5. Copy the char array into your Arduino program and send it to your CPU.
At this stage, you can start creating some pretty complex programs with ease. I would definitely play around with writing some larger programs. I actually found a bug in my hardware that was hidden for a while because my programs were never very complex!

Step 2: Expand the Control Lines (Image)

Before we can expand the CPU any further, we have to address the fact we're running out of control lines. An easy way to do this is to add a 3rd 28C16 ROM and be on your way. If you want something a little more involved but satisfying, read on.
Right now the control lines are one hot encoded. This means that if you have 4 lines, you can encode 4 states. But we know that a 4-bit binary number can encode 16 states. We'll use this principle via 74LS138 decoders, just like Ben used for the step counter.
Choosing the Control Line Combinations
Everything comes with trade-offs. In the case of combining control lines, it means the two control lines we choose to combine can never be activated at the same time. We can ensure this by encoding all the inputs together in the first 74LS138 and all the outputs together in a second 74LS138. We'll keep the remaining control lines directly connected.
Rewiring the Control Lines
If your build is anything like mine, the control lines are a bit of a mess. You'll need to be careful when rewiring to ensure it all comes back together correctly. Let's get to it:
  1. Place the two 74LS138 decoders on the far right side of the breadboard with the ROMs. Connect them to power and ground.
  2. You'll likely run out of inverters, so place a 74LS04 on the breadboard above your decoders. Connect it to power and ground.
  3. Carefully take your inputs (MI, RI, II, AI, BI, J) and wire them to the outputs of the left 74LS138. Do not wire anything to O0 because that's activated by 000 which won't work for us!
  4. Carefully take your outputs (RO, CO, AO, EO) and wire them to the outputs of the right 74LS138. Remember, do not wire anything to O0!
  5. Now, the 74LS138 outputs are active low, but the ROM outputs were active high. This means you need to swap the wiring on all your existing 74LS04 inverters for the LEDs and control lines to work. Make sure you track which control lines are supposed to be active high vs. active low!
  6. Wire E3 to power and E2 to ground. Connect the E1 on both 138s together, then connect it to the same line as OE on your ROMs. This will ensure that the outputs are disabled when you're in program mode. You can actually take off the 1k pull-up resistors from the previous tutorial at this stage, because the 138s actively drive the lines going to the 74LS04 inverters rather than floating like the ROMs.
At this point, you really need to ensure that the massive rewiring job was successful. Connect 3 jumper wires to A0-A2 and test all the combinations manually. Make sure the correct LED lights up and check with a multimeteoscilloscope that you're getting the right signal at each chip. Catching mistakes at this point will save you a lot of headaches! Now that everything is working, let's finish up:
  1. Connect A0-A2 of the left 74LS138 to the left ROM's A0-A2.
  2. Connect A0-A2 of the right 74LS138 to the right ROM's A0-A2.
  3. Distribute the rest of the control signals across the two ROMs.
Changing the ROM Code
This part is easy. We just need to update all of our #define with the new addresses and program the ROMs again. For clarity that we're not using one-hot encoding anymore, I recommend using hex instead of binary. So instead of #define MI 0b0000000100000000, we can use #define MI 0x0100, #define RI 0x0200, and so on.
Testing
Expanding the control lines required physically rewiring a lot of critical stuff, so small mistakes can creep up and make mysterious errors down the road. Write a program that activates each control line at least once and make sure it works properly! With your assembler and Arduino programmer, this should be trivial.
Bonus: Adding B Register Output
With the additional control lines, don't forget you can now add a BO signal easily which lets you fully use the B register.

Step 3: Add a Stack (Image 1, Image 2)

Adding a stack significantly expands the capability of the CPU. It enables subroutines, recursion, and handling interrupts (with some additional logic). We'll create our stack with an 8-bit stack pointer hard-coded from $0100 to $01FF, just like the 6502.
Wiring up the Stack Pointer
A stack pointer is conceptually similar to a program counter. It stores an address, you can read it and write to it, and it increments. The only difference between a stack pointer and a program counter is that the stack pointer must also decrement. To create our stack pointer, we'll use two 74LS193 4-bit up/down binary counters:
  1. Place a 74LS00 NAND gate, 74LS245 transceiver, and two 74LS193 counters in a row next to your output register. Wire up power and ground.
  2. Wire the the Carry output of the right 193 to the Count Up input of the left 193. Do the same for the Borrow output and Count Down input.
  3. Connect the Clear input between the two 193s and with an active high reset line. The B register has one you can use on its 74LS173s.
  4. Connect the Load input between the two 193s and to a new active low control line called SI on your 74LS138 decoder.
  5. Connect the QA-QD outputs of the lower counter to A8-A5 and the upper counter to A4-A1. Pay special attention because the output are in a weird order (BACD) and you want to make sure the lower A is connected to A8 and the upper A is connected to A4.
  6. Connect the A-D inputs of the lower counter to B8-B5 and the upper counter to B4-B1. Again, the inputs are in a weird order and on both sides of the chip so pay special attention.
  7. Connect the B1-B8 outputs of the 74LS245 transceiver to the bus.
  8. On the 74LS245 transceiver, connect DIR to power (high) and connect OE to a new active low control line called SO on your 74LS138 decoder.
  9. Add 8 LEDs and resistors to the lower part of the 74LS245 transceiver (A1-A8) so you can see what's going on with the stack pointer.
Enabling Increment & Decrement
We've now connected everything but the Count Up and Count Down inputs. The way the 74LS193 works is that if nothing is counting, both inputs are high. If you want to increment, you keep Count Down high and pulse Count Up. To decrement, you do the opposite. We'll use a 74LS00 NAND gate for this:
  1. Take the clock from the 74LS08 AND gate and make it an input into two different NAND gates on the 74LS00.
  2. Take the output from one NAND gate and wire it to the Count Up input on the lower 74LS193 counter. Take the other output and wire it to the Count Down input.
  3. Wire up a new active high control line called SP from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Up.
  4. Wire up a new active high control line called SM from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Down.
At this point, everything should be working. Your counter should be able to reset, input a value, output a value, and increment/decrement. But the issue is it'll be writing to $0000 to $00FF in the RAM! Let's fix that.
Accessing Higher Memory Addresses
We need the stack to be in a different place in memory than our regular program. The problem is, we only have an 8-bit bus, so how do we tell the RAM we want a higher address? We'll use a special control line to do this:
  1. Wire up an active high line called SA from the 28C16 ROM to A8 on the Cypress CY7C199 RAM.
  2. Add an LED and resistor so you can see when the stack is active.
That's it! Now, whenever we need the stack we can use a combination of the control line and stack pointer to access $0100 to $01FF.
Updating the Instruction Set
All that's left now is to create some instructions that utilize the stack. We'll need to settle some conventions before we begin:
If you want to add a little personal flair to your design, you can change the convention fairly easily. Let's implement push and pop (source code):
  1. Define all your new control lines, such as #define SI 0x0700 and #define SO 0x0005.
  2. Create two new instructions: PSH (1011) and POP (1100).
  3. PSH starts the same as any other for the first two steps: MI|CO and RO|II|CE. The next step is to put the contents of the stack pointer into the address register via MI|SO|SA. Recall that SA is the special control line that tells the memory to access the $01XX bank rather than $00XX.
  4. We then take the contents of AO and write it into the RAM. We can also increment the stack pointer at this stage. All of this is done via: AO|RI|SP|SA, followed by TR.
  5. POP is pretty similar. Start off with MI|CO and RO|II|CE. We then need to take a cycle and decrement the stack pointer with SM. Like with PSH, we then set the address register with MI|SO|SA.
  6. We now just need to output the RAM into our A register with RO|AI|SA and then end the instruction with TR.
  7. Updating the assembler is easy since neither instruction has operands. For example, push is just psh -> 0x0B.
And that's it! Write some programs that take advantage of your new 256 byte stack to make sure everything works as expected.

Step 4: Add Subroutine Instructions (Image)

The last step to complete our stack is to add subroutine instructions. This allows us to write complex programs and paves the way for things like interrupt handling.
Subroutines are like a blend of push/pop instructions and a jump. Basically, when you want to call a subroutine, you save your spot in the program by pushing the program counter onto the stack, then jumping to the subroutine's location in memory. When you're done with the subroutine, you simply pop the program counter value from the stack and jump back into it.
We'll follow 6502 conventions and only save and restore the program counter for subroutines. Other CPUs may choose to save more state, but it's generally left up to the programmer to ensure they're not wiping out states in their subroutines (e.g., push the A register at the start of your subroutine if you're messing with it and restore it before you leave).
Adding an Extra Opcode Line
I've started running low on opcodes at this point. Luckily, we still have two free address lines we can use. To enable 5-bit opcodes, simply wire up the 4Q output of your upper 74LS173 register to A7 of your 28C16 ROM (this assumes your opcodes are at A3-A6).
Updating the ROM Writer
At this point, you simply need to update the Arduino writer to support 32 instructions vs. the current 16. So, for example, UCODE_TEMPLATE[16][8] becomes UCODE_TEMPLATE[32][8] and you fill in the 16 new array elements with nop. The problem is that the Arduino only has so much memory and with the way Ben's code is written to support conditional jumps, it starts to get tight.
I bet the code can be re-written to handle this, but I had a TL866II Plus EEPROM programmer handy from the 6502 build and I felt it would be easier to start using that instead. Converting to a regular C program is really simple (source code):
  1. Copy all the #define, global const arrays (don't forget to expand them from 16 to 32), and void initUCode(). Add #include and #include to the top.
  2. In your traditional int main (void) C function, after initializing with initUCode(), make two arrays: char ucode_upper[2048] and char ucode_lower[2048].
  3. Take your existing loop code that loops through all addresses: for (int address = 0; address < 2048; address++).
  4. Modify instruction to be 5-bit with int instruction = (address & 0b00011111000) >> 3;.
  5. When writing, just write to the arrays like so: ucode_lower[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step]; and ucode_upper[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step] >> 8;.
  6. Open a new file with FILE *f = fopen("rom_upper.hex", "wb");, write to it with fwrite(ucode_upper, sizeof(char), sizeof(ucode_upper), f); and close it with fclose(f);. Repeat this with the lower ROM too.
  7. Compile your code using gcc (you can use any C compiler), like so: gcc -Wall makerom.c -o makerom.
Running your program will spit out two binary files with the full contents of each ROM. Writing the file via the TL866II Plus requires minipro and the following command: minipro -p CAT28C16A -w rom_upper.hex.
Adding Subroutine Instructions
At this point, I cleaned up my instruction set layout a bit. I made psh and pop 1000 and 1001, respectively. I then created two new instructions: jsr and rts. These allow us to jump to a subroutine and returns from a subroutine. They're relatively simple:
  1. For jsr, the first three steps are the same as psh: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, MI|SO|SA.
  2. On the next step, instead of AO we use CO to save the program counter to the stack: CO|RI|SP|SA.
  3. We then essentially read the 2nd byte to do a jump and terminate: MI|CO, RO|J.
  4. For rts, the first four steps are the same as pop: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, SM, MI|SO|SA.
  5. On the next step, instead of AI we use J to load the program counter with the contents in stack: RO|J|SA.
  6. We're not done! If we just left this as-is, we'd jump to the 2nd byte of jsr which is not an opcode, but a memory address. All hell would break loose! We need to add a CE step to increment the program counter and then terminate.
Once you update the ROM, you should have fully functioning subroutines with 5-bit opcodes. One great way to test them is to create a recursive program to calculate something--just don't go too deep or you'll end up with a stack overflow!

Conclusion

And that's it! Another successful upgrade of your 8-bit CPU. You now have a very capable machine and toolchain. At this point I would have a bunch of fun with the software aspects. In terms of hardware, there's a number of ways to go from here:
  1. Interrupts. Interrupts are just special subroutines triggered by an external line. You can make one similar to how Ben did conditional jumps. The only added complexity is the need to load/save the flags register since an interrupt can happen at any time and you don't want to destroy the state. Given this would take more than 8 steps, you'd also need to add another line for the step counter (see below).
  2. ROM expansion. At this point, address lines on the ROM are getting tight which limits any expansion possibilities. With the new approach to ROM programming, it's trivial to switch out the 28C16 for the 28C256 that Ben uses in the 6502. These give you 4 additional address lines for flags/interrupts, opcodes, and steps.
  3. LCD output. At this point, adding a 16x2 character LCD like Ben uses in the 6502 is very possible.
  4. Segment/bank register. It's essentially a 2nd memory address register that lets you access 256-byte segments/banks of RAM using bank switching. This lets you take full advantage of the 32K of RAM in the Cypress chip.
  5. Fast increment instructions. Add these to registers by replacing 74LS173s with 74LS193s, allowing you to more quickly increment without going through the ALU. This is used to speed up loops and array operations.
submitted by MironV to beneater [link] [comments]

Trying to get my PC screen to be sent over serial and displayed on a nokia 5110, I think the PC side works but I can't get it to display on the screen correctly. If someone could look over my code that would be great.

I'm not exactly sure of the formatting NumPY uses to convert image to binary array, so the arduino code might just be recieving the data incorrectly. I don't know how to fix that if that is the issue though.
PC python code
from PIL import Image import pyautogui import os import numpy as np import serial ser = serial.Serial() ser.baudrate = 115200 ser.port = 'COM4' ser.open() loop = 0 img_row = 0 img_column = 0 def black_and_white(input_image_path, output_image_path): color_image = Image.open(input_image_path) bw = color_image.convert('1', dither=Image.NONE) bw.save(output_image_path) #while(loop < 1): while(True): image = pyautogui.screenshot() image.save(r'C:\Users\lordl\Desktop\scrnshot\pic.png') black_and_white('pic.png', 'bw_pic.png') image = Image.open('bw_pic.png') image = image.resize((84, 48)) image.save('resized.png') image = Image.open('resized.png') img_array = np.array(image) binarr = np.where(img_array==True, 1, 0) while(img_column < 84): while(img_row < 48): #print(binarr[img_row, img_column]) ser.write(binarr[img_row,img_column]) img_row = img_row + 1 img_column = img_column + 1 img_row = 0 ser.write(b'3') img_column = 0 loop += 1 os.remove('pic.png') os.remove('bw_pic.png') os.remove('resized.png') print(loop) 
Arduino code:
#include  #include  #include  // Software SPI (slower updates, more flexible pin options): // pin 7 - Serial clock out (SCLK) // pin 6 - Serial data out (DIN) // pin 5 - Data/Command select (D/C) // pin 4 - LCD chip select (CS) // pin 3 - LCD reset (RST) Adafruit_PCD8544 display = Adafruit_PCD8544(D4, D3, D2, D0, D1); void setup() { // put your setup code here, to run once: Serial.begin(115200); display.begin(); display.setContrast(50); display.display(); // show splashscreen delay(500); display.clearDisplay(); } int row = 0; int column = 0; bool newData = false; int i; int a; void loop() { // put your main code here, to run repeatedly: char receivedChars[8065]; // an array to store the received data static byte ndx = 0; char endMarker = '3'; char rc; while (Serial.available() > 0 && newData == false) { rc = Serial.read(); if (rc != endMarker) { receivedChars[ndx] = rc; ndx++; if (ndx >= 4032) { ndx = 4032 - 1; } } else { receivedChars[ndx] = '3'; // terminate the string ndx = 0; newData = true; } } column = 0; if (newData == true) { while (column < 84) { while (row < 48) { i = column*84 + row; a = receivedChars[i]; display.drawPixel(column, row, a); row = row + 1; } column = column + 1; row = 0; display.display(); } newData = false; } } 
submitted by OverclockedPizza to arduino [link] [comments]

more related issues


more related issues
in the conversion of old and new systems, the most difficult one is uuuuuuuuuuuuuuu.

  1. Among the following options, the one that does not belong to the combination of two parameters, one change and three combinations:
    the form control that can accept numerical data input is.

Internal gateway protocol is divided into: distance vector routing protocol, and hybrid routing protocol.

Firewall can prevent the transmission of infected software or files
among the following coupling types, the lowest coupling degree is ().

The () property of the Navigator object returns the platform and version information of the browser.

What are the main benefits of dividing IP subnets? ()
if users want to log in to the remote server and become a simulation terminal of the remote server temporarily, they can use the
[26-255] software life cycle provided by the remote host, which means that most operating systems, such as DOS, windows, UNIX, etc., adopt tree structureFolder structure.

An array is a group of memory locations related by the fact that they all have __________ name and __________ Type.
in Windows XP, none of the characters in the following () symbol set can form a file name. [2008 vocational college]
among the following options, the ones that do not belong to the characteristics of computer viruses are:
in the excel 2010 cell Format dialog box, the nonexistent tab is
the boys___ The teacher talked to are from class one.
for an ordered table with length of 18, if the binary search is used, the length of the search for the 15th element is ().

SRAM memory is______ Memory.

() is a website with certain complementary advantages. It places the logo or website name of the other party's website on its own website, and sets the hyperlink of each other's website, so that users can find their own website from the cooperative website and achieve the purpose of mutual promotion.

  1. Accounting qualification is managed by information technology ()
    which of the following devices can forward the communication between different VLANs?

The default port number of HTTP hypertext transfer protocol is:
forIn the development method of object, () will be the dominant standard modeling language in the field of object-oriented technology.

When you visit a website, what is the first page you see?

File D:\\ city.txt The content is as follows: Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Chongqing writes the following event process: privatesub form_ click() Dim InD Open \d:\\ city.txt \For input as ? 1 do while not EOF (1) line input ? 1, Ind loop close 1 print ind End Sub run the program, click the form, and the output result is.

When users use dial-up telephone lines to access the Internet, the most commonly used protocol is.

In the I2C system, the main device is usually taken by the MCU with I2C bus interface, and the slave device must have I2C bus interface.

The basic types of market research include ()
the function of the following program is: output all integers within 100 that can be divisible by 3 and have single digits of 6. What should be filled in the underline is (). 56b33287e4b0e85354c031b5. PNG
the infringement of the scope of intellectual property rights is:
multimedia system is a computer that can process sound and image interactivelySystem.

In order to allow files of different users to have the same file name, () is usually used in the file system.

The following () effects are not included in PowerPoint 2010 animation effects.

Macro virus can infect________ Documents.

The compiled Java program can be executed directly.

In PowerPoint, when adding text to a slide with AutoShape, how to indicate that text can be edited on the image when an AutoShape is selected ()
organizational units can put users, groups, computers and other units into the container of the active directory.

Ethernet in LAN adopts the combination technology of packet switching and circuit switching. ()
interaction designers need to design information architecture and interface details.

In the process of domain name resolution, the local domain name server queries the root domain name server by using the search method.

What stage of e-commerce system development life cycle does data collection and processing preparation belong to?

Use the "ellipse" tool on the Drawing toolbar of word, press the () key and drag the mouse to draw a circle.

The proportion of a country's reserve position in the IMF, including the convertible currency part of the share subscribed by Member States to the IMF, and the portion that can be paid in domestic currency, respectively.

  1. When installing Windows 7 operating system, the system disk partition must be in format before installation.

High rise buildings, public places of entertainment and other decoration, in order to prevent fire should be used____。 ()
with regard to the concept of area in OSPF protocol, what is wrong in the following statements is ()
suppose that the channel bandwidth is 4000Hz and the modulation is 256 different symbols. According to the Nyquist theorem, the data rate of the ideal channel is ()
which of the following is the original IEEE WLAN standard ()?

What is correct about data structure is:
the key deficiency of waterfall model is that ().

The software development mode with almost no product plan, schedule and formal development process is
in the following description of computers, the correct one is ﹥
Because human eyes are sensitive to chroma signal, the sampling frequency of luminance signal can be lower than that of chroma signal when video signal is digitized, so as to reduce the amount of digital video data.

[47-464] what is correct in the following statements is
ISO / IEC WG17 is responsible for the specific drafting, discussion, amendment, formulation, voting and publication of the final ISO international standards for iso14443, iso15693 and iso15693 contactless smart lock manufacturers smart card standards.

Examples of off - balance - sheet activities include _________

The correct description of microcomputer is ().

Business accident refers to the accident caused by the failure of operation mechanism of tourism service department. It can be divided into ().

IGMP Network AssociationWhat is the function of the discussion?

Using MIPS as the unit to measure the performance of the computer, it refers to the computer______

In the excel workbook, after executing the following code, the value of cell A3 of sheet 1 is________ Sub test1() dim I as integer for I = 1 to 5 Sheet1. Range (\ \ a \ \ & I) = I next inend sub
What are the characteristics of electronic payment compared with traditional payment?

When the analog signal is encoded by linear PCM, the sampling frequency is 8kHz, and the code energy control unit is 8 bits, then the information transmission rate is ()
  1. The incorrect discussion about the force condition of diesel engine connecting rod is.

Software testing can be endless.

The game software running on the windows platform of PC is sent to the mobile phone of Android system and can run normally.

The following is not true about the video.

The way to retain the data in the scope of request is ()
distribution provides the basis and support for the development of e-commerce.

  1. Which of the following belong to the content of quality control in the analysis
    1. During the operation of a program, the CNC system appears "soft limit switch overrun", which belongs to
    2. The wrong description of the gas pipe is ()
    3. The following statement is wrong: ()
    the TCP / IP protocol structure includes () layer.

Add the records in table a to table B, and keep the original records in table B. the query that should be used is.

For additives with product anti-counterfeiting certification mark, after confirming that the product is in conformity with the factory quality certificate and the real object, one copy () shall be taken and pasted on the ex factory quality certificate of the product and filed together.

() accounts are disabled by default.

A concept of the device to monitor a person's bioparameters is that it should.
  1. For the cephalic vein, the wrong description is
    an image with a resolution of 16 pixels × 16 pixels and a color depth of 8 bits, with the data capacity of at least______ Bytes. (0.3 points)
  2. What are the requirements for the power cord of hand-held electric tools?

In the basic mode of electronic payment, credit card belongs to () payment system.

The triode has three working states: amplification, saturation and cut-off. In the digital circuit, when the transistor is used as a switch, it works in two states of saturation or cut-off.

Read the attached article and answer the following: compared with today's music, those of the past
() refers to the subjective conditions necessary for the successful completion of an activity.

In the OSI reference model, what is above the network layer is_______ 。

The decision tree corresponding to binary search is not only a binary search tree, but also an ideal balanced binary tree. In order to guide the interconnection, interoperability and interoperability of computer networks, ISO has issued the OSI reference model, and its basic structure is divided into
26_______ It belongs to the information system operation document.

In C ? language, the following operators have the highest priority___ ?
the full Chinese name of BPR is ()
please read the following procedures: dmain() {int a = 5, B = 0, C = 0; if (a = B + C) printf (\ * * \ n \); else printf (\ $$n \);} the above programs
() software is not a common tool for web page making.

When a sends a message to B, in order to achieve security, a needs to encrypt the message with ().

The Linux exchange partition is used to save the visited web page files.

  1. Materials consumed by the basic workshop may be included in the () cost item.

The coverage of LAN is larger than that of Wan.

Regarding the IEEE754 standard of real number storage, the wrong description is______

Task 4: convert decimal number to binary, octal and hexadecimal number [Topic 1] (1134.84375) 10 = () 2=()8 = () 16
the purpose of image data compression is to ()
in IE browser, to view the frequently visited sites that have been saved, you need to click.

  1. When several companies jointly write a document, the document number of each company should be quoted in the header at the same time. ()
    assuming that the highest frequency of analog signal is 10MHz, and the sampling frequency must be greater than (), then the sample signal can not be distorted.

The incredible performing artist from Toronto.
in access, the relationship between a table and a database is.

In word 2010, the following statement about the initial drop is correct.

Interrupt service sub function does not need to be called in the program, but after applying for interrupt, the CPU automatically finds the corresponding program according to the interrupt number.

Normal view mode is the default view mode for word documents.

A common variable is defined as follows: Union data {int a; int b; float C;} data; how much memory space does the variable data occupy in VC6.0?

______ It is not a relational database management system.

In the basic model of decision support system, what is in the core position is:
among the following key factors of software outsourcing projects, () is the factor that affects the final product quality and production efficiency of software outsourcing.

Word Chinese textThe shortcut for copying is ().
submitted by Amanda2020-jumi to u/Amanda2020-jumi [link] [comments]

Problem with Unreal Engine's Nativization feature + Visual Studio 2017

Im using UE4.25.1 by the way.
I don't know why it won't allow me to package my game after enabling nativization. I also did add the assets to nativize in the array by manually setting up my blueprint for nativization via Class settings.
It packages and runs smoothly afterwards when nativization is disabled.

I'm getting the ff errors from my output log:
Took 184.0273603s to run UnrealBuildTool.exe, ExitCode=6
UATHelper: Packaging (Windows (64-bit)): UnrealBuildTool failed. See log for more details. (C:\Users\Zelijah\AppData\Roaming\Unreal Engine\AutomationTool\Logs\Z+[GAMES]+Epic+Games+UE_4.25\UBT-InMyHead-Win64-Development.txt)
UATHelper: Packaging (Windows (64-bit)): AutomationTool exiting with ExitCode=6 (6)
UATHelper: Packaging (Windows (64-bit)): BUILD FAILED
PackagingResults: Error: Unknown Error


Here's my full log text file:
AndroidPlatformFactory.RegisterBuildPlatforms: UnrealBuildTool.AndroidPlatformSDK has no valid SDK IOSPlatformFactory.RegisterBuildPlatforms: UnrealBuildTool.IOSPlatformSDK using manually installed SDK LinuxPlatformFactory.RegisterBuildPlatforms: UnrealBuildTool.LinuxPlatformSDK has no valid SDK WindowsPlatformFactory.RegisterBuildPlatforms: UnrealBuildTool.WindowsPlatformSDK using manually installed SDK BuildMode.Execute: Command line: "Z:\[GAMES]\Epic Games\UE_4.25\Engine\Binaries\DotNET\UnrealBuildTool.exe" InMyHead Win64 Development -Project="Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\InMyHead.uproject" "Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\InMyHead.uproject" -NoUBTMakefiles -remoteini="Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead" -skipdeploy -Manifest="Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\Intermediate\Build\Manifest.xml" -NoHotReload -log="C:\Users\Zelijah\AppData\Roaming\Unreal Engine\AutomationTool\Logs\Z+[GAMES]+Epic+Games+UE_4.25\UBT-InMyHead-Win64-Development.txt" DynamicCompilation.RequiresCompilation: Compiling Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\Intermediate\Build\BuildRules\InMyHeadModuleRules.dll: Assembly does not exist WindowsPlatform.FindVSInstallDirs: Found Visual Studio installation: Z:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2017\Enterprise (Product=Microsoft.VisualStudio.Product.Enterprise, Version=15.9.28307.1146, Sort=0) WindowsPlatform.FindToolChainDirs: Found Visual Studio toolchain: Z:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2017\Enterprise\VC\Tools\MSVC\14.16.27023 (Version=14.16.27040) WindowsPlatform.UpdateCachedWindowsSdks: Found Windows 8.1 SDK at C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\8.1 WindowsPlatform.EnumerateSdkRootDirs: Found Windows 10 SDK root at C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10 (1) WindowsPlatform.EnumerateSdkRootDirs: Found Windows 10 SDK root at C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10 (2) WindowsPlatform.UpdateCachedWindowsSdks: Found Universal CRT version 10.0.10240.0 at C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10 WindowsPlatform.UpdateCachedWindowsSdks: Found Windows 10 SDK version 10.0.14393.0 at C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10 WindowsPlatform.UpdateCachedWindowsSdks: Found Universal CRT version 10.0.14393.0 at C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10 DynamicCompilation.RequiresCompilation: Compiling Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\Intermediate\Plugins\NativizedAssets\Windows\Game\Intermediate\Build\BuildRules\NativizedAssetsModuleRules.dll: Assembly does not exist UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'PythonScriptPlugin' (referenced via InMyHead.uproject) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'NativizedAssets' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'Paper2D' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AISupport' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'LightPropagationVolume' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'CameraShakePreviewer' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ActorLayerUtilities' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AnimationSharing' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'SignificanceManager' (referenced via default plugins -> AnimationSharing.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'CLionSourceCodeAccess' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'CodeLiteSourceCodeAccess' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'GitSourceControl' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'KDevelopSourceCodeAccess' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'NullSourceCodeAccess' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'PerforceSourceControl' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'PlasticSourceControl' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'RiderSourceCodeAccess' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'SubversionSourceControl' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'UObjectPlugin' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'VisualStudioCodeSourceCodeAccess' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'VisualStudioSourceCodeAccess' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'XCodeSourceCodeAccess' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AssetManagerEditor' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'CryptoKeys' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'CurveEditorTools' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'DataValidation' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'FacialAnimation' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'GameplayTagsEditor' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'GeometryMode' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MacGraphicsSwitching' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MaterialAnalyzer' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MobileLauncherProfileWizard' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'PluginBrowser' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'SpeedTreeImporter' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'DatasmithContent' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'VariantManagerContent' (referenced via default plugins -> DatasmithContent.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AlembicImporter' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'GeometryCache' (referenced via default plugins -> AlembicImporter.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AutomationUtils' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ScreenshotTools' (referenced via default plugins -> AutomationUtils.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'BackChannel' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ChaosClothEditor' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ChaosCloth' (referenced via default plugins -> ChaosClothEditor.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ChaosEditor' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'PlanarCut' (referenced via default plugins -> ChaosEditor.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'GeometryProcessing' (referenced via default plugins -> ChaosEditor.uplugin -> PlanarCut.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'EditableMesh' (referenced via default plugins -> ChaosEditor.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'GeometryCollectionPlugin' (referenced via default plugins -> ChaosEditor.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ProceduralMeshComponent' (referenced via default plugins -> ChaosEditor.uplugin -> GeometryCollectionPlugin.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ChaosSolverPlugin' (referenced via default plugins -> ChaosEditor.uplugin -> GeometryCollectionPlugin.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ChaosNiagara' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'Niagara' (referenced via default plugins -> ChaosNiagara.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'CharacterAI' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'PlatformCrypto' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ProxyLODPlugin' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'SkeletalReduction' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Ignoring plugin 'MagicLeapMedia' (referenced via default plugins) due to unsupported target platform. UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MagicLeapPassableWorld' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MagicLeap' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MLSDK' (referenced via default plugins -> MagicLeap.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MagicLeapLightEstimation' (referenced via default plugins -> MagicLeap.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AndroidMedia' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AvfMedia' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ImgMedia' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MediaCompositing' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MediaPlayerEditor' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'WmfMedia' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MeshPainting' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'TcpMessaging' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'UdpMessaging' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ActorSequence' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'LevelSequenceEditor' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MatineeToLevelSequence' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'TemplateSequence' (referenced via default plugins -> MatineeToLevelSequence.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MovieRenderPipeline' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'EditorScriptingUtilities' (referenced via default plugins -> MovieRenderPipeline.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'NetcodeUnitTest' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'NUTUnrealEngine4' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Ignoring plugin 'OnlineSubsystemGooglePlay' (referenced via default plugins) due to unsupported target platform. UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Ignoring plugin 'OnlineSubsystemIOS' (referenced via default plugins) due to unsupported target platform. UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'OnlineSubsystemNull' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'OnlineSubsystem' (referenced via default plugins -> OnlineSubsystemNull.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'OnlineSubsystemUtils' (referenced via default plugins -> OnlineSubsystemNull.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'LauncherChunkInstaller' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AndroidDeviceProfileSelector' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AndroidMoviePlayer' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AndroidPermission' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AppleImageUtils' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AppleMoviePlayer' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ArchVisCharacter' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AssetTags' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'AudioCapture' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'CableComponent' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'CustomMeshComponent' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'ExampleDeviceProfileSelector' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'GoogleCloudMessaging' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'GooglePAD' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'IOSDeviceProfileSelector' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'LinuxDeviceProfileSelector' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'LocationServicesBPLibrary' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'MobilePatchingUtils' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'OculusVR' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'PhysXVehicles' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Ignoring plugin 'PostSplashScreen' (referenced via default plugins) due to unsupported target platform. UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'RuntimePhysXCooking' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'SoundFields' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'SteamVR' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'Synthesis' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'WebMMoviePlayer' (referenced via default plugins) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'WebMMedia' (referenced via default plugins -> WebMMoviePlayer.uplugin) UEBuildTarget.AddPlugin: Enabling plugin 'WindowsMoviePlayer' (referenced via default plugins) LuminSDKVersionHelper.HasAnySDK: *** Unable to determine MLSDK location *** VCToolChain..ctor: Compiler: Z:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2017\Enterprise\VC\Tools\MSVC\14.16.27023\bin\HostX64\x64\cl.exe VCToolChain..ctor: Linker: Z:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2017\Enterprise\VC\Tools\MSVC\14.16.27023\bin\HostX64\x64\link.exe VCToolChain..ctor: Library Manager: Z:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2017\Enterprise\VC\Tools\MSVC\14.16.27023\bin\HostX64\x64\lib.exe VCToolChain..ctor: Resource Compiler: C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\bin\x64\rc.exe ExternalExecution.AreGeneratedCodeFilesOutOfDate: UnrealHeaderTool needs to run because no generated code directory was found for module NativizedAssets ExternalExecution.ExecuteHeaderToolIfNecessary: Parsing headers for InMyHead ExternalExecution.ExecuteHeaderToolIfNecessary: Running UnrealHeaderTool "Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\InMyHead.uproject" "Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\Intermediate\Build\Win64\InMyHead\Development\InMyHead.uhtmanifest" -LogCmds="loginit warning, logexit warning, logdatabase error" -Unattended -WarningsAsErrors -abslog="C:\Users\Zelijah\AppData\Roaming\Unreal Engine\AutomationTool\Logs\Z+[GAMES]+Epic+Games+UE_4.25\UHT-InMyHead-Win64-Development.txt" -installed ExternalExecution.ExecuteHeaderToolIfNecessary: Reflection code generated for InMyHead in 7.4428985 seconds UEBuildTarget.GenerateManifest: Writing manifest to Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\Intermediate\Build\Manifest.xml HotReload.IsLiveCodingSessionActive: Checking for live coding mutex: Global\LiveCoding_Z++Zelijah Media Files+In My Head (feat. Hijo)+UE Assets+[Project]+InMyHead+Binaries+Win64+InMyHead.exe ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.4_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.4_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.9_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.9_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.3_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.3_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: SharedPCH.Engine.cpp: Produced item "SharedPCH.Engine.h.pch" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.9_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.9_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.4_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.4_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.7_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.7_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.8_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.8_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.6_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.6_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.8_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.8_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.7_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.7_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.1_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.1_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.5_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.5_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.2_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.2_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.5_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.5_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: InMyHead.target: Produced item "InMyHead.target" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.1_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.1_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.2_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.2_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.10_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.10_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: InMyHead.exe: Produced item "InMyHead.exe" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.10_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.10_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Default.rc2: Produced item "Default.rc2.res" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.6_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.6_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.11_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.11_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.3_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.3_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: InMyHead.cpp: Produced item "InMyHead.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.11_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.11_of_11.cpp.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: SharedPCH.Core.cpp: Produced item "SharedPCH.Core.h.pch" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.4_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.4_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.9_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.9_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.3_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.3_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.8_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.8_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.1_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.1_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.2_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.2_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.9_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.9_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.7_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.7_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.10_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.10_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.11_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.11_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.10_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.10_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: SharedPCH.Engine.cpp: Produced item "SharedPCH.Engine.h.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.2_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.2_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: SharedPCH.Core.cpp: Produced item "SharedPCH.Core.h.obj" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.6_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.6_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.8_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.8_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.5_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.5_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: SharedPCH.Engine.cpp: Produced item "SharedPCH.Engine.h.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: InMyHead.exe: Produced item "InMyHead.pdb" was produced by outdated command-line. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: New command-line: Z:\[GAMES]\Epic Games\UE_4.25\Engine\Build\Windows\link-filter\link-filter.exe -- "Z:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2017\Enterprise\VC\Tools\MSVC\14.16.27023\bin\HostX64\x64\link.exe" @"Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\Intermediate\Build\Win64\InMyHead\Development\InMyHead.exe.response" ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: SharedPCH.Core.cpp: Produced item "SharedPCH.Core.h.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: InMyHead.cpp: Produced item "InMyHead.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.6_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.6_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.11_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.11_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.gen.4_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.gen.4_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.7_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.7_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.3_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.3_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.5_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.5_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.IsActionOutdated: Module.NativizedAssets.1_of_11.cpp: Produced item "Module.NativizedAssets.1_of_11.cpp.txt" doesn't exist. ActionGraph.DeleteOutdatedProducedItems: Deleting outdated item: Z:\Zelijah Media Files\In My Head (feat. Hijo)\UE Assets\[Project]\InMyHead\Binaries\Win64\InMyHead.pdb BuildMode.Build: Building InMyHead... BuildMode.OutputToolchainInfo: Using Visual Studio 2017 14.16.27040 toolchain (Z:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2017\Enterprise\VC\Tools\MSVC\14.16.27023) and Windows 10.0.14393.0 SDK (C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10). BuildMode.OutputToolchainInfo: [Upgrade] BuildMode.OutputToolchainInfo: [Upgrade] Using backward-compatible build settings. The latest version of UE4 sets the following values by default, which may require code changes: BuildMode.OutputToolchainInfo: [Upgrade] bLegacyPublicIncludePaths = false => Omits subfolders from public include paths to reduce compiler command line length. (Previously: true). BuildMode.OutputToolchainInfo: [Upgrade] ShadowVariableWarningLevel = WarningLevel.Error => Treats shadowed variable warnings as errors. (Previously: WarningLevel.Warning). BuildMode.OutputToolchainInfo: [Upgrade] PCHUsage = PCHUsageMode.UseExplicitOrSharedPCHs => Set in build.cs files to enables IWYU-style PCH model. See https://docs.unrealengine.com/en-US/Programming/BuildTools/UnrealBuildTool/IWYU/index.html. (Previously: PCHUsageMode.UseSharedPCHs). BuildMode.OutputToolchainInfo: [Upgrade] Suppress this message by setting 'DefaultBuildSettings = BuildSettingsVersion.V2;' in InMyHead.Target.cs, and explicitly overriding settings that differ from the new defaults. BuildMode.OutputToolchainInfo: [Upgrade] ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Building 28 actions with 16 processes... ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [1/28] Default.rc2 ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [2/28] SharedPCH.Core.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [3/28] InMyHead.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [4/28] SharedPCH.Engine.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [5/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.5_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [6/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.4_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [7/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.2_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [8/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.3_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [9/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.6_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [10/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.7_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [11/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.8_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [12/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.9_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [13/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.1_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [14/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.10_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [15/28] Module.NativizedAssets.gen.11_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [16/28] Module.NativizedAssets.10_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Z:/Zelijah Media Files/In My Head (feat. Hijo)/UE Assets/[Project]/InMyHead/Intermediate/Plugins/NativizedAssets/Windows/Game/Source/NativizedAssets/Private/W_PlayerHUD__pf655287937.cpp(571): error C2065: 'UW_Minimap_C__pf655287937': undeclared identifier ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Z:/Zelijah Media Files/In My Head (feat. Hijo)/UE Assets/[Project]/InMyHead/Intermediate/Plugins/NativizedAssets/Windows/Game/Source/NativizedAssets/Private/W_PlayerHUD__pf655287937.cpp(571): error C2672: 'NewObject': no matching overloaded function found ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Z:/Zelijah Media Files/In My Head (feat. Hijo)/UE Assets/[Project]/InMyHead/Intermediate/Plugins/NativizedAssets/Windows/Game/Source/NativizedAssets/Private/W_PlayerHUD__pf655287937.cpp(571): error C2974: 'NewObject': invalid template argument for 'T', type expected ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Z:\[GAMES]\Epic Games\UE_4.25\Engine\Source\Runtime\CoreUObject\Public\UObject/UObjectGlobals.h(1225): note: see declaration of 'NewObject' ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Z:/Zelijah Media Files/In My Head (feat. Hijo)/UE Assets/[Project]/InMyHead/Intermediate/Plugins/NativizedAssets/Windows/Game/Source/NativizedAssets/Private/W_PlayerHUD__pf655287937.cpp(572): error C3536: '__Local__8': cannot be used before it is initialized ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Z:/Zelijah Media Files/In My Head (feat. Hijo)/UE Assets/[Project]/InMyHead/Intermediate/Plugins/NativizedAssets/Windows/Game/Source/NativizedAssets/Private/W_PlayerHUD__pf655287937.cpp(572): error C2440: '': cannot convert from 'int' to 'FUnconvertedWrapper__UW_Minimap_C__pf655287937' ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Z:/Zelijah Media Files/In My Head (feat. Hijo)/UE Assets/[Project]/InMyHead/Intermediate/Plugins/NativizedAssets/Windows/Game/Source/NativizedAssets/Private/W_PlayerHUD__pf655287937.cpp(572): note: No constructor could take the source type, or constructor overload resolution was ambiguous ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Z:/Zelijah Media Files/In My Head (feat. Hijo)/UE Assets/[Project]/InMyHead/Intermediate/Plugins/NativizedAssets/Windows/Game/Source/NativizedAssets/Private/W_PlayerHUD__pf655287937.cpp(575): error C2440: '=': cannot convert from 'int' to 'UWidget *' ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: Z:/Zelijah Media Files/In My Head (feat. Hijo)/UE Assets/[Project]/InMyHead/Intermediate/Plugins/NativizedAssets/Windows/Game/Source/NativizedAssets/Private/W_PlayerHUD__pf655287937.cpp(575): note: Conversion from integral type to pointer type requires reinterpret_cast, C-style cast or function-style cast ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [17/28] Module.NativizedAssets.5_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [18/28] Module.NativizedAssets.2_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [19/28] Module.NativizedAssets.8_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [20/28] Module.NativizedAssets.7_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [21/28] Module.NativizedAssets.6_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [22/28] Module.NativizedAssets.3_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [23/28] Module.NativizedAssets.11_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [24/28] Module.NativizedAssets.1_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [25/28] Module.NativizedAssets.4_of_11.cpp ParallelExecutor.ExecuteActions: [26/28] Module.NativizedAssets.9_of_11.cpp UnrealBuildTool.Main: CompilationResultException: Error: OtherCompilationError UnrealBuildTool.Main: at UnrealBuildTool.ActionGraph.ExecuteActions(BuildConfiguration BuildConfiguration, List`1 ActionsToExecute) in D:\Build\++UE4+Licensee\Sync\Engine\Saved\CsTools\Engine\Source\Programs\UnrealBuildTool\System\ActionGraph.cs:line 242 UnrealBuildTool.Main: at UnrealBuildTool.BuildMode.Build(List`1 TargetDescriptors, BuildConfiguration BuildConfiguration, ISourceFileWorkingSet WorkingSet, BuildOptions Options, FileReference WriteOutdatedActionsFile) in D:\Build\++UE4+Licensee\Sync\Engine\Saved\CsTools\Engine\Source\Programs\UnrealBuildTool\Modes\BuildMode.cs:line 372 UnrealBuildTool.Main: at UnrealBuildTool.BuildMode.Execute(CommandLineArguments Arguments) in D:\Build\++UE4+Licensee\Sync\Engine\Saved\CsTools\Engine\Source\Programs\UnrealBuildTool\Modes\BuildMode.cs:line 219 UnrealBuildTool.Main: at UnrealBuildTool.UnrealBuildTool.Main(String[] ArgumentsArray) in D:\Build\++UE4+Licensee\Sync\Engine\Saved\CsTools\Engine\Source\Programs\UnrealBuildTool\UnrealBuildTool.cs:line 550 Timeline.Print: Timeline: Timeline.Print: Timeline.Print: [ 0.000] Timeline.Print: [ 0.000](+0.053) Timeline.Print: [ 0.053](+0.002) FileMetadataPrefetch.QueueEngineDirectory() Timeline.Print: [ 0.055](+0.229) XmlConfig.ReadConfigFiles() Timeline.Print: [ 0.285](+0.000) SingleInstanceMutex.Acquire() Timeline.Print: [ 0.285](+0.125) UEBuildPlatform.RegisterPlatforms() Timeline.Print: 0.286 [ 0.000](+0.090) Initializing InstalledPlatformInfo Timeline.Print: 0.377 [ 0.091](+0.000) Querying types Timeline.Print: 0.378 [ 0.093](+0.001) MacPlatformFactory Timeline.Print: 0.380 [ 0.094](+0.000) TVOSPlatformFactory Timeline.Print: 0.380 [ 0.095](+0.022) AndroidPlatformFactory Timeline.Print: 0.403 [ 0.117](+0.000) HoloLensPlatformFactory Timeline.Print: 0.403 [ 0.117](+0.002) IOSPlatformFactory Timeline.Print: 0.405 [ 0.120](+0.004) LinuxPlatformFactory Timeline.Print: 0.410 [ 0.124](+0.000) LuminPlatformFactory Timeline.Print: 0.410 [ 0.124](+0.000) WindowsPlatformFactory Timeline.Print: [ 0.418](+0.015) TargetDescriptor.ParseCommandLine() Timeline.Print: [ 0.448](+4.949) UEBuildTarget.Create() Timeline.Print: 0.453 [ 0.004](+3.175) RulesCompiler.CreateTargetRulesAssembly() Timeline.Print: 0.453 0.004 [ 0.000](+2.372) Timeline.Print: 2.825 2.377 [ 2.372](+0.032) Finding engine modules Timeline.Print: 2.858 2.409 [ 2.405](+0.005) Finding plugin modules Timeline.Print: 2.863 2.415 [ 2.410](+0.115) Timeline.Print: 2.978 2.530 [ 2.525](+0.004) Finding program modules Timeline.Print: 2.983 2.534 [ 2.530](+0.002) Finding program targets Timeline.Print: 2.985 2.536 [ 2.532](+0.040) Timeline.Print: 3.026 2.577 [ 2.572](+0.597) Compiling rules assembly (InMyHeadModuleRules.dll) Timeline.Print: 3.628 [ 3.180](+0.360) RulesAssembly.CreateTargetRules() Timeline.Print: 3.989 [ 3.540](+0.079) Timeline.Print: 4.068 [ 3.620](+0.227) Compiling rules assembly (NativizedAssetsModuleRules.dll) Timeline.Print: 4.296 [ 3.848](+0.015) UEBuildTarget constructor Timeline.Print: 4.312 [ 3.864](+1.085) UEBuildTarget.PreBuildSetup() Timeline.Print: [ 5.401](+32.503) UEBuildTarget.Build() Timeline.Print: 5.401 [ 0.000](+0.109) Timeline.Print: 5.511 [ 0.109](+22.197) ExternalExecution.SetupUObjectModules() Timeline.Print: 27.708 [22.307](+0.195) Timeline.Print: 27.903 [22.502](+7.442) Executing UnrealHeaderTool Timeline.Print: 35.347 [29.946](+0.002) ExternalExecution.ResetCachedHeaderInfo() Timeline.Print: 35.349 [29.948](+0.002) ExternalExecution.UpdateDirectoryTimestamps() Timeline.Print: 35.352 [29.950](+0.035) Timeline.Print: 35.387 [29.986](+2.375) UEBuildBinary.Build() Timeline.Print: 37.762 [32.361](+0.141) Timeline.Print: [37.905](+0.002) ActionGraph.CheckPathLengths Timeline.Print: [37.908](+0.020) Timeline.Print: [37.928](+0.001) Reading dependency cache Timeline.Print: [37.930](+0.001) Reading action history Timeline.Print: [37.932](+0.022) ActionGraph.GetActionsToExecute() Timeline.Print: 37.934 [ 0.001](+0.001) Prefetching include dependencies Timeline.Print: 37.936 [ 0.003](+0.017) Cache outdated actions Timeline.Print: [37.955](+0.049) Timeline.Print: [38.004](+145.515) ActionGraph.ExecuteActions() Timeline.Print: [183.519](+0.203) Timeline.Print: [183.722](+0.000) FileMetadataPrefetch.Stop() Timeline.Print: [183.725]

I also tried doing it with a blank project in Unreal and it gives me this message:

Missing UE4Game binary.
You may have to build the UE4 project with your IDE. Alternatively, build using UnrealBuildTool with the commandline:
UE4Game

I decided to post it here since nobody seems to figure out what and where my problem is coming from either from Visual Studio or Unreal itself.... please help me... :(
submitted by jedlsf to gamedev [link] [comments]

How to Convert Binary, Decimal, Hexadecimal and Octal in Visual C++ C Programming - Array Searching C# Tutorial - Print Windows Form .Net  FoxLearn - YouTube C Programming Tutorial 10 - C Basics Part 2 - Print ... Binary Options - When to Enter Trades - YouTube Binary search tree - Implementation in C/C++ - YouTube High Power Binary System - Best Binary Option

Example 1: C Output #include <stdio.h> int main() { // Displays the string inside quotations printf("C Programming"); return 0; } Output. C Programming. How does this program work? All valid C programs must contain the main() function. The code execution begins from the start of the main() function. The printf() is a library function to send formatted output to the screen. The function prints ... With Python 2.6+, that's quite simple: print "{0:b}".format(i) Example: >>> print "{0:b}".format(17) 10001 >>> print "{0:b}".format(224) 11100000 print(L2) ChangeList() Ans. Output is: [11,10,9,8,7,4] (f) Study the following program and select the possible output(s) from the options (i) to (iv) following it. Also, write the maximum and the minimum values that can be assigned to the variable Y. (2) import random X= random.random() Y= random.randint(0,4) print(int(X),":",Y+int(X)) int a=20,b=30,c=40; printf(“%d %d %d”); output is 40 30 20 i want to know the reason behind it. nadzgates on May 15th, 2014: thanx this help me a lot…..i will be on the exam on this tuesday…wish me luck!!! amish on May 18th, 2014: i want only using format specifier %c print the int datatype hex datatype float datatype.. If you want to print an integer in octal or hexadecimal you'd use o for octal, or x for hexadecimal. If you want capital letters (A instead of a when printing out decimal 10) then you can use X. Conversion specifiers for floating point numbers. Displaying floating point numbers has a ton of different options, best shown in a table: The argument is interpreted as a short int or unsigned short int (only applies to integer specifiers: i, d, o, u, x and X). 2: l. The argument is interpreted as a long int or unsigned long int for integer specifiers (i, d, o, u, x and X), and as a wide character or wide character string for specifiers c and s. 3: L In this C programming tutorial we are going to talk about the use of binary files. Binary files. Binary files are very similar to arrays of structures, except the structures are in a disk-file rather than an array in memory. Binary files have two features that distinguish them from text files: You can instantly use any structure in the file. Although ANSI C does not have this mechanism, it is possible to use itoa() as a shortcut: char buffer [33]; itoa (i,buffer,2); printf ("binary: %s\n",buffer); Here's the origin: itoa in cplusplus reference. It is non-standard C, but K&R mentioned the implementation in the C book, so it should be quite common. It should be in stdlib.h. With the -b options you get binary output. e.g. $ wcalc -b "(256 3) & 0xff" = 0b11 share improve this answer follow answered Sep 22 '08 at 8:25. quinmars quinmars. 10.2k 6 6 gold badges 30 30 silver badges 39 39 bronze badges. 1. there are a few other options on this front, too... ruby -e 'printf("%b\n", 0xabc)', dc followed by 2o followed by 0x123p, and so forth. – lindes Oct 13 '13 ... The argument is interpreted as a short int or unsigned short int (only applies to integer specifiers: i, d, o, u, x and X). 2: l. The argument is interpreted as a long int or unsigned long int for integer specifiers (i, d, o, u, x and X), and as a wide character or wide character string for specifiers c and s. 3: L

[index] [6697] [17805] [2574] [11619] [13319] [10374] [1397] [4872] [17693] [5474]

How to Convert Binary, Decimal, Hexadecimal and Octal in Visual C++

How to Convert Binary, Decimal, Hexadecimal and Octal in Visual C++ using If Statement, MessageBox, MessageBoxButtons and MessageBoxIcon. High Power Binary System has been designed for short-term trading classical PUT / CALL binary options. This indicator algorithm, built on a large number of traditional and unconventional copyright ... How to print windows forms in c#.net using PrintDocument, PrintPreviewDialog. The c# basics course is a free c# tutorial series that helps beginning programm... See complete series on data structures here: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL2_aWCzGMAwI3W_JlcBbtYTwiQSsOTa6P In this lesson, we have implemented bina... In the last video we created variables x and y and gave them values, and I told you what they would store. But what if you didn't believe me and wanted to se... Subscribe for more! The trick to entering trades is predicting, not following. You must watch for warning signals, and then capitalize the opportunity when a... Binary and Transistors Explained. - Duration: 7:00. Basics Explained, ... C PROGRAMMING - INSERTION OF AN ELEMENT INTO AN ARRAY AT SPECIFIC POSITION - Duration: 15:50. Sundeep Saradhi Kanthety ...

http://binary-optiontrade.profhostperjo.ga